Black phosphorus (BP) is a new class of 2D material which holds promise for next generation transistor applications owing to its intrinsically superior carrier mobility properties. Among other issues, achieving good ohmic contacts with low source-drain parasitic resistance in BP field-effect transistors (FET) remains a challenge. For the first time, we report a new contact technology that employs the use of high work function nickel (Ni) and thermal anneal to produce a metal alloy that effectively reduces the contact Schottky barrier height (ΦB) in a BP FET. When annealed at 300 °C, the Ni electrode was found to react with the underlying BP crystal and resulted in the formation of nickel-phosphide (Ni2P) alloy. This serves to de-pin the metal Fermi level close to the valence band edge and realizes a record low hole ΦB of merely ~12 meV. The ΦB at the valence band has also been shown to be thickness-dependent, wherein increasing BP multi-layers results in a smaller ΦB due to bandgap energy shrinkage. The integration of hafnium-dioxide high-k gate dielectric additionally enables a significantly improved subthreshold swing (SS ~ 200 mV/dec), surpassing previously reported BP FETs with conventional SiO2 gate dielectric (SS > 1 V/dec).
The publication is available at: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4678863/